Eclampsia

Eclampsia is seizures (convulsions) in a pregnant woman. These seizures are not related to an existing brain condition.

Causes

Doctors do not know exactly what causes eclampsia. Factors that may play a role include:

  • Blood vessel problems
  • Brain and nervous system (neurological) factors
  • Diet
  • Genes

Eclampsia follows a condition called preeclampsia. This is a serious complication of pregnancy in which a woman has high blood pressure and very rapid weight gain.

Most women with preeclampsia do not go on to have seizures. It is hard to predict which women will. Women at high risk of seizures have severe preeclampsia with findings such as:

  • Abnormal blood tests
  • Headaches
  • Very high blood pressure
  • Vision changes

Your chance of getting preeclampsia increases when:

  • You are 35 or older
  • This is your first pregnancy
  • You have diabetes, high blood pressure, or kidney disease
  • You are having more than one baby (such as twins or triplets)
  • You are a teen

Symptoms

Symptoms of eclampsia include:

  • Muscle aches and pains
  • Seizures
  • Severe agitation
  • Unconsciousness

Symptoms of preeclampsia include:

  • Gaining more than 2 pounds a week
  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Swelling of the hands and face
  • Vision problems

Exams and Tests

Doctor will do a physical exam to look for causes of seizures. Blood pressure and breathing rate will be checked regularly.

Blood and urine tests may be done to check:

  • Blood clotting factors
  • Creatinine
  • Hematocrit
  • Uric acid
  • Liver function
  • Platelet count
  • Protein in the urine

Treatment

The main treatment to prevent severe preeclampsia from progressing to eclampsia is giving birth to the baby. Letting the pregnancy go on can be dangerous for you and the baby.

You may be given medicine to prevent seizures. These medicines are called anticonvulsants.

Your doctor may prescribe medicine to lower high blood pressure. If your blood pressure stays high, delivery may be needed, even if it is before the baby is due.

Possible Complications

Women with eclampsia or preeclampsia have a higher risk of:

  • Separation of the placenta called placenta abruptio
  • Premature delivery that leads to complications in the baby
  • Blood clotting problems

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call the doctor or go to the emergency department if you have any symptoms of eclampsia or preeclampsia. Emergency symptoms include seizures or decreased alertness.

Seek medical care right away if you have any of the following:

  • Bright red vaginal bleeding
  • Little or no movement in the baby
  • Severe headache
  • Severe pain in the upper right abdominal area
  • Vision loss
  • Nausea or vomiting

Prevention

Getting medical care all during pregnancy is important in preventing complications. This allows problems such as preeclampsia to be detected and treated early.

Getting treatment for preeclampsia may prevent eclampsia.

 

Disease Prevented by Vaccines

What are the vaccines a Bangladeshi kid receive?

A Bangladeshi kid receives vaccines against 9 diseases:

  1. Tuberculosis,
  2. Polio,
  3. Diphtheria,
  4. Pertussis,
  5. Tetanus,
  6. Hepatitis B,
  7. Influenza type B infection,
  8. Measles and
  9. Rubella.

Vaccine against Rubella is the latest vaccine added to schedule. Government of Bangladesh is now preparing launching of the 10th vaccine against Pneumococcus.

 

Anaemia During Pregnancy

What causes anemia during pregnancy?

Your body uses iron to make hemoglobin, a protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen to your tissues. During pregnancy, your blood volume expands to accommodate changes in your body and help your baby make his or her entire blood supply — doubling your need for iron. If you don’t have enough iron stores or get enough iron during pregnancy, you could develop iron deficiency anemia.

How does anemia during pregnancy affect the baby?

Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy might increase the risk of a preterm delivery or a low birth weight baby.

What are the risk factors for anemia during pregnancy?

You are at increased risk of developing anemia during pregnancy if you:

  • Have two or more closely spaced pregnancies
  • Are pregnant with more than one baby
  • Are vomiting frequently due to morning sickness
  • Don’t consume enough iron
  • Have a heavy pre-pregnancy menstrual flow

What are the symptoms of anemia during pregnancy?

If you have a mild case of iron deficiency anemia, you might not notice any symptoms. However, if you have a moderate or severe case, you might:

  • Be excessively tired and weak
  • Become increasingly pale
  • Have heart palpitations
  • Be short of breath
  • Feel dizzy or lightheaded
  • Have cravings to eat nonfood items (pica), such as clay or cornstarch

Keep in mind that some anemia symptoms can be similar to general pregnancy symptoms.

Regardless of whether or not you have symptoms, you’ll have a blood test to screen for anemia during your first prenatal visit and usually once more during the course of the pregnancy. In addition, if you’re concerned about your level of fatigue or any other symptoms, consult your doctors.

How can anemia during pregnancy be prevented and treated?

Prenatal vitamins typically contain iron. Taking a prenatal vitamin that contains iron can help prevent and treat anemia during pregnancy. In some cases, your doctor might recommend a separate iron supplement. During pregnancy, you need 27 milligrams of iron a day.

Good nutrition can also prevent anemia during pregnancy. Dietary sources of iron include lean red meat, poultry and fish. Other options include iron-fortified breakfast cereals, beans and vegetables.

The iron from animal products, such as meat, is most easily absorbed. To enhance the absorption of iron from plant sources and supplements, pair them with a food or drink high in vitamin C — such as orange juice, tomato juice or strawberries. If you take iron supplements with orange juice, avoid the calcium-fortified variety. Although calcium is an essential nutrient during pregnancy, calcium can decrease iron absorption.

How is anemia during pregnancy treated?

If you are taking a prenatal vitamin that contains iron and you are anemic, your doctor might recommend testing to determine other possible causes. In some cases, you might need to see a doctor who specializes in treating blood disorders (hematologist). If the cause is iron deficiency, additional supplemental iron may be suggested. If you have a history of gastric or small bowel surgery or are unable to tolerate oral iron, you might need intravenous iron administration.

 

Breastfeeding

Advantage Of Breastfeeding

  • Breastfeeding protects your baby from infections and diseases.
  • Breastfeeding provides health benefits for mother.
  • It’s free.
  • It’s available whenever and wherever your baby needs a feed.
  • It’s the right temperature.
  • It can build a strong physical and emotional bond between mother and baby.
  • It can give you a great sense of achievement.

Health benefits of breastfeeding for your baby:

  • Less chance of diarrhoea and vomiting.
  • Fewer chest and ear infections and fewer visits to hospital.
  • Less chance of being constipated.
  • Less likelihood of becoming obese and therefore developing type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related illnesses later in life.

Any amount of breastfeeding has a positive effect. The longer you breastfeed, the longer the protection lasts and the greater the benefits.

Health benefits of breastfeeding for mother:

Breastfeeding doesn’t only benefit your baby. It benefits your health too. Breastfeeding is good for mother as it:

  • Lowers your risk of getting breast and ovarian cancer.
  • Naturally uses up to 500 calories a day.
  • Saves money – infant formula, the sterilising equipment and feeding equipment can be costly.
  • Can help to build a strong bond between you and your baby.

Exclusive breastfeeding can also delay the return of your periods.

Proper positioning techniques for breastfeeding

The mother must:

  • Hold the baby so that he/she is facing the nipple.
  • Keep your fingers away from the area to be drawn into the baby’s mouth, allowing the baby to draw in the entire nipple and as much of the areola as possible.
  • Press your fingers slightly towards your ribs to keep the nipple extended as much as possible.
  • Guide and insert the areola by centering the nipple in the baby’s mouth and pointing it toward the top back section of the baby’s mouth.
  • Hold the baby in close to your body.

The baby must:

  • Face the mother’s body.
  • Open his/her mouth wide (like a big yawn.)
  • Draw the nipple in to the upper back part of his mouth.
  • Place his gums beyond the nipple, taking in as much of the areola as possible.
  • Have his tongue out, over his lower gum, “cradling” the nipple and areola.

 

Child Development Stage

Developement Stage of a Child

Stage Motor Development
2 Months Smiles at the sound of your voice and follows you with their eyes around the room.
3 Months Raises head and chest when lying on stomach.
Grasps objects. Smiles at other people.
4 Months Babbles, laughs, and tries to imitate sounds.
Holds head steady.
6 Months Rolls from back to stomach and stomach to back.
Moves objects in hands.
7 Months Responds to own name.
Finds partially hidden toys and household items.
9 Months Sits without support, crawls, babbles, starts to say mom and dad’s name.
12 Months Walks with or without support.
Says at least one word.
Starts copying other people.
18 Months Walks independently, drinks from a cup, says a few words, and points to body parts.
2 Years Runs and jumps.
Speaks in two-word sentences.
Follows simple instructions.
Begins make-believe play.
3 Years Climbs
Speaks in multiword sentences.
Sorts objects by shape and color.
4 Years Gets along with people outside the family.
Draws circles and squares.
Rides a tricycle.
5 Years Tells name and address.
Jumps, hops, and skips.
Gets dressed
Counts 10 or more objects.